Homosexual parenting issue:
With human-ecological lens and Bronfenbrenner’s model
Recent year, as the homosexual marriage become legalized, lots of problems emerged inside our society. In this research paper, I primarily focusing on the effect of the homosexual parenting to their adopted children. Children growing in the homosexual family have been found having the similar gender-types behavior compare to the children growing in the heterosexual family, which is differ from lots of suggestion of social constructivist and social learning theory. Moreover, considering the interaction and relationship the children who growing with same-sex parents have, some of the studies show these young adult children are suffered from trust and attachment issue. Finally, there are still some culture existing, which lack of acceptance of the LGBT, homosexual family may experience inequality and bias in this kind of society, accompany with negative effect to the children growing in this family. By applying the system thinking as human ecological lens, with the Bronfenbrenner’s model, considering the adopted children growing with same-sex parents as a special group, allow us to care about their individual sex-type behaviour, their relationship built with other people and the ethical social problem, such as lack of health care, they receive under the macro system.
Sex-typing, the sense of being male or female, is defined by Shaffer (2009) as the process that a child commonly at 3 years old, becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own. In the social learning theory, Alberta Bandura suggests that Adults are involving influencing child gender role identification. Therefore, parents and the household types play important roles in how “feminine” or “masculine” the child can potentially become. Most of us commonly think that the gay or lesbian compare to the heterosexual people is less masculine or feminine. Applying Bronfenbrenner’s model, relate to the microsystem, the homosexual parents thus create different home environment for their children, they may unconsciously encourage their children to develop less gender-stereotyped behavior (Berkowitz& Ryan, 2011), and may less likely the reinforce and facilitate the gender stereotyped behavior (Sutfin et al., 2008). However, Goldberg & Randi (2016) research about gender-types behavior overtime with different family structure shows differently to what we commonly think. They using Common Fate Growth Model (CFGM; Ledermann & Macho, 2014) to model the children’s gender-typed play overtime, using both parents report on their children’s behavior. The findings argue the pattern and prediction of the previous research, suggested that the the gender development of children with LG parents is quite like that of children with heterosexual parents. (Goldberg 2016). Also as the other data shows the children in lesbian- and gay-parent families do not differ from their counterparts in heterosexual-parent families’ in terms of overall psychological adjustment. (Goldberg &Smith, 2013). Therefore, by using the systematic thinking, considering the wholeness, the homosexual parenting may be a reason that the adopted children are less gender stereotyped, but cannot take full responsibility for that problem. What is necessary is “less gender-differentiated repertoire of interests, activities, and behaviors may benefit children, enhancing their capacity to the in a range of settings (Blakemore et al., 2009).
By using the systematic thinking, despite the effect on a child as individual, I also consider their behavior and relationship built with other people, as Bronfenbrenner’s model suggests, in the mesosystem. As the special group, adopted children growing in the homosexual family may suffered more in the relationship with other people. In the study of Goldberg (2007), 15 of 36 participants raised by the same-sex parents reported challenge relating to the ability to trust other people. They tend to strongly value the trustworthy when they build the relationship with other people. However, the variety also should be considered in Goldberg’s study (2007), such as the experience of their parents unexpected coming out. Moreover, a study (Potter 2012) in the Journal of Marriage and Family, pointed out that “children in same-sex families scored lower than their peers living in married, two-biological parent households”. However,